October - November 2001
Terry O'Halloran, vice president of business development for Atlantis
Adventures, has assumed responsibilities to oversee and manage Navatek
Cruises on an interim basis, following the departure of Navatek President
Valerie King. O'Halloran joined Atlantis Reef Divers in 1990, then transferred
to Atlantis Submarines in 1993. He assumed his current position as vice
president in 1996. Atlantis Adventures acquired Navatek Cruises in April
As part of its ongoing management development program, Matson Navigation
Company announced new executive assignments. Branton B. "Bal"
Dreyfus will transfer from Honolulu to San Francisco to work on special
projects related to growing the earnings base of the company. Dreyfus
has been vice president, area manager, Hawaii and Guam, since 1998.
He joined Matson in 1993 as general manager, sales, mainland.
Richard S. Bliss returns to Hawaii to succeed Dreyfus as vice president,
Hawaii and Guam, and will transfer from Seattle to Honolulu. Bliss has
been vice president, area manager, Pacific Northwest, since 1998 and
was vice president, area manager, Hawaii and Guam from 1995 to 1998.
Robert L. Dawdy will succeed Bliss as vice president, area manager,
Pacific Northwest, and will transfer from San Francisco to Seattle.
Dawdy has been vice president, West Coast operations since 1995. Prior
to that he served as vice president, area manager, Hawaii, from 1989
Randy Cates of Cates International is one of the recipients of City
Bank's 2001 TIGR Awards, which recognize leadership in emerging growth
industries in Hawaii. Cates International is establishing a commercial
open-ocean aquaculture venture off Oahu's Leeward Coast. The Targeted
Industry Growth Report (TIGR) appears monthly in Hawaii Business magazine.
CSX launches "container availability" calculator
CSX Lines now provides "Just in Time" data on the Internet
that will save money for its customers shipping containers to Hawaii
and Puerto Rico. Through the company's NetCaptain e-business services,
www.csxlines.com, customers are
able to estimate container availability online, in real time.
"With this new container availability calculator, our shippers
can now reduce by several hours the amount of time truck drivers sit
at the port of discharge waiting to pick up containers, which enables
them to plan in advance both their trucking and warehousing operations,"
said Cathy Pitt, CSX Lines e-business product manager.
To achieve "Just in Time" data, CSX Lines e-business group
has integrated two pieces of data: the location of the container on
the vessel and the hatch discharge sequences from the vessel planners.
The system reads this data against the stowage location of the cargo
and is able to provide, to the minute and hour, accurate cargo availability
to the shipper via the NetCaptain portal. This data enables customers
to more efficiently manage loads that have urgent delivery time requirements.
Guide to coastal issues available
The federal government has released a resource book on coastal environments
to help communities implement coastal management programs.
Coastal Challenges: A Guide to Coastal and Marine Issues,
published by Coastal America, a federal multiagency partnership, helps
people learn about and better understand challenges and benefits of
America's coastal environments. The guide covers major coastal and marine
issues such as population, pollution, hypoxic waters, habitat loss,
oil spills and global climate change. It also presents key laws and
associated programs and highlights the importance of coastal and marine
resources, including plant and animal species, energy and mineral resources,
wetlands, commercial and recreational uses, shipping, ports and harbors,
and waste disposal.
Publications may be ordered via the Superintendent of Documents Online
Bookstore at http://bookstore.gpo.gov
or by phone (toll-free 866-512-1800 or 202-512-1800 in DC area). The
cost is $12 ($15 international orders) and includes shipping and handling.
Matson Intermodal ranked first
Matson Intermodal System, Inc. was ranked as the number one intermodal
marketing company (IMC) in Logistics magazine's 18th annual Quest for
Quality readers' survey.
More than 3,000 readers - all of who buy transportation or
third-party services - responded to this year's questionnaire, which
asked for input in five key areas vital to logistics excellence: on-time
performance, value, information technology, customer service, and equipment
and operations. Matson Intermodal received the highest performance scores
for an IMC in all five service areas.
Young Bros., HTB expand community giving
Young Brothers, Ltd. and Hawaiian Tug & Barge have formed community
advisory boards on three islands to expand the company's community giving.
The companies established annual funds to provide financial contributions
to deserving 501(c)3 charitable organizations, up to $1,000 per organization.
Projects that fall into the areas of health, education, civic and community
service, youth activities, cultural enrichment, the environment and
special community projects are eligible to apply for grants.
Applications are available via the Internet at www.htbyb.com.
Coast Guard Tightens Hawaii Port Security
Following the recent terrorist attacks in New York and Washington,
DC, the U.S. Coast Guard Pacific Area has established Naval Vessel Protection
Zones, which will be in effect to June 15, 2002. The agency also announced
it will continue to implement security zones for incoming cruise ships
until March 19, 2002.
Three heavily armed Coast Guard cutters homeported in Hawaii are enforcing
security zones for offshore moorings and anchorages of cruise ships
and for Honolulu International Airport's reef runway.
The Coast Guard also is working to ensure heightened security at all
large passenger vessel terminals. Each cruise ship departing their port
of origin will be required to provide the Coast Guard with a manifest
of its passengers.
Naval Protection Zones
The Naval Vessel Protection Zones have been established by temporary
final rule and provide for the regulation of vessel traffic in the vicinity
of U.S. naval vessels in the navigable waters of the United States.
The regulations are issued under the authority contained in 14 United
States Code 91.
The following notable details are excerpted from the temporary regulation:
All vessels within 500 yards of a U.S. naval vessel must operate
at the minimum speed necessary to maintain a safe course and proceed
as directed by an official patrol.
Vessels are not allowed within 100 yards of a U.S. naval vessel,
unless authorized by the official patrol.
Vessels requesting to pass within 100 yards of a US. naval vessel
must contact the official patrol on VHF-FM channel 16.
It is anticipated that commercial vessels anchored in a designated
anchorage area may be permitted to remain at anchor within 100 yards
of passing naval vessels.
Though restrictive in nature, the effects of the temporary regulation
should not prove to be significant because the protection zones are
limited in size and the official patrol may allow access to the zone,
according to the Coast Guard. Additionally, the naval vessel protection
zones will affect a given location for a limited time while the vessel
is in transit, along with notifications made by the Coast Guard so mariners
can make adjustments.
Violation of these regulations may be punishable as a felony, and may
result in vessel seizures or other penalties against the offending vessel.
Harbor Contamination Assessment Underway
by Mele Pochereva
A survey of subsurface petroleum contamination in the Iwilei area of
Honolulu Harbor, launched in early September, should be completed by
mid to late October, according to the Hawaii Department of Health. Then,
the 130 soil samples drilled from the area between Piers 24 and 38 will
be analyzed so that a cleanup plan can be developed.
The survey is just the first increment of what is expected to be a long-term,
multi-million-dollar effort to assess and remove oil contaminants from
the Honolulu waterfront.
The Department of Health (DOH) and the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency are overseeing the investigation, which is part of a voluntary
cleanup agreement between 12 property owners and operators known as
the Honolulu Harbor Participating Partners, or HHPP.
DOH first entered into a cleanup agreement with the state Department
of Transportation and five other Honolulu Harbor property owners in
February 1998. Since then, the HHPP has grown to 12 participants, including
BHP Companies, Castle & Cooke (Dole Food Co. and Oahu Transport
Co.), Chevron, City Mill Company, DIL Trust, the DOT-Harbors Division,
Hawaiian Electric Company, Phillips Petroleum Company, Equilon Enterprises,
Texaco Inc., Tosco Corporation and Unocal.
The group has agreed to pay the cost to clean up the waterfront from
Fort Armstrong to Sand Island, a bill that could add up to millions
of dollars over the coming years.
"This collaborative endeavor by this group should go a long way
in reducing the potential risk posed by this contamination and allow
harbor economic redevelopment to continue," said state Director
of Health Dr. Bruce Anderson.
What is not known at this time is how the cleanup cost will be divided
among the participants. It will be up to the group to determine who
pays how much, says Gary Gill, DOH deputy director for environmental
health. That's an area of potential legal conflict between the parties,
Gill notes. The Iwilei project area comprises approximately 120 parcels,
and multiple parties have owned or operated portions of the area during
the past 60 to 100 years. Sorting out liability will be a "historical
tangle," says Gill
Three "hot spots" under study
The investigation now underway is focused on three areas where oil
releases are known to have occurred: Piers 24-29, the former site of
Young Brothers' operations; Pier 32, formerly occupied by Pauley Petroleum;
and Piers 35-38, where the state's Commercial Fishing Village is now
It is believed that leaks from storage tanks and pipelines and oil conveyed
by drains and sewers over the past decades have contaminated the Honolulu
Harbor area. Many pipelines have been abandoned that still may contain
Significant subsurface oil contamination may be the result of former
and current oil storage and transportation in the Iwilei area, while
storms, groundwater flows, tidal fluctuations and physical barriers
have resulted in discharges at various locations in the harbor at various
times of the year.
Since last February, repairs to sea walls and drains have been completed
to prevent further oil leaks into the harbor. So far, the measures appear
to be working, according to Gill. The next step, once the current survey
is completed, is to locate and remove remaining pockets of subsurface
oil from the area.
Under a separate voluntary agreement, yet to be finalized, current property
users will be required to check pipelines and storage facilities to
ensure that their operations are properly contained to prevent future
Cruise Ship Delivery Delayed
Northrop Grumman Corporation and American Classic Voyages Co. announced
12-month delays in the delivery dates of two new passenger ships for
service in the Hawaiian Islands, following the settlement of business
disputes in recent months. The new projected delivery dates are Feb.
1, 2004 for Ship I and Feb 1, 2005 for Ship II.
The price per ship also will be increased by $19 million from the original
contract price of $440 million to cover the increased costs of the interior
The agreement between the two companies has been endorsed by the U.S.
Maritime Administration (MARAD) with the support of U.S. Secretary of
Transportation Norman Y. Mineta. The program to build the first cruise
ships in the United States in 40 years, named Project America, is a
pilot project to reinvigorate U.S-flag cruise ship construction and
operation. MARAD has provided a $1.1 billion loan guarantee for the
American Classic has committed $42 million and Northrop Grumman has
committed $44 million to acquire through 2005 a new issue of stock in
AMCV's Project America subsidiary. The additional equity will help offset
the price increases and associated costs for the delivery extensions,
and will provide additional funding for Ships I and II. In addition
to the equity committed as part of this agreement, AMCV has already
committed $100 million to fund the construction of the two ships.
"We are extremely pleased to reach an amicable resolution,"
said Phil Calian, CEO of American Classic. "We look forward to
having a state-of-the-art luxury cruise ship, built in an American shipyard,
sailing the Hawaiian Islands in 2004. Despite the current challenging
economic environment, American Classic believes that Hawaii is a fantastic
growth opportunity for the company as the Hawaiian cruise market is
in its infancy."
The 1,900-passenger ships, which will sail under AMCV's United States
Line brand, are being built at Northrop Grumman's Ingalls Opera-tions
in Pascagoula, Miss. More than 1,600 Ingalls Operations personnel are
currently working full-time on the project. The design of the ships
is virtually complete, and the first ship is one-third finished.
Leases Pending for Commercial Fishing Village
by Mele Pochereva
With a 32,000-square-foot multi-tenant building completed; a new 500-plus-foot
concrete pier ready for use; roads, utilities and landscaping installed;
and several major leases waiting for final signatures, the state's 16.5-acre
Commercial Fishing Village at Piers 36-38 is poised for business.
However, several prospective tenants will not sign leases until an environmental
survey and remediation of suspected subsurface petroleum contamination
is completed (see story page 6). The fishing village has been planned
for more than a decade as a place to consolidate the commercial fishing
activities that are now scattered from Kewalo Basin to Honolulu Harbor.
United Fishing Agency and Pacific Ocean Producers both plan to build
major stand-alone facilities at the village and have pending leases
with the state Department of Transpor-tation. Several companies are
considering leasing space in the multi-user building, according to the
Construction on the $14.6 million project began two years ago and was
expected to be completed in late 2000.
Jim Cook, president of Pacific Ocean Producers, is optimistic that his
company will sign a lease in the next few months and begin construction
of its new facilities in the first quarter of 2002. Cook says his fishing
supply company will spend around $2 million to build a new showroom,
store and administrative offices that will occupy 20,000 square feet
on the ground level and another 8,000 square feet on a second floor.
The company's existing facilities at Pier 35 will be used for its ice
supply business and cold storage.
United Fishing Agency plans a 15,000-20,000-square-foot facility to
house its fish auction operations, which, along with other businesses,
are being nudged from their Kewalo Basin location as part of the state's
redevelopment of the Kakaako waterfront area.
The DOT says that Pacific Fishing Supply is interested in leasing 15,000
square feet in the multi-user building. Two other prospective tenants
that were not named are waiting to sign leases until after the environmental
studies are completed.
Lease rents in the multi-user building will be 45 cents per square foot
per month plus common area maintenance amounting to approximately 11
cents per square foot per month.
Pier 38 Improvements
Construction of new +/- 500-foot concrete pier for fishing vessel
Contractor: Healy Tibbitts Builders, Inc.
Completion: November 2001
Demolition of existing structures; clearing and grading; site improvements,
including utilities, roadways and landscaping.
Contractor: Goodfellow Bros., Ltd.
Completion: October 2001
Construction of 90' x 360' multi-user building shell with surrounding
roadway and utilities. Interior slabs and space buildout by individual
Contractor: QMC Corp.
Completion: October 2001
Hawaii's Longliners: Where Are They Now?
by Mele Pochreva
A year after U.S. District Judge David Ezra banned Hawaii's longline
fleet from swordfishing in Hawaiian waters, an estimated 80 or 90 boats
out of a fleet of 125 remain in the Islands fishing for tuna.
The other three dozen or so have turned in their Hawaii longline permits
and relocated to California, where they can continue the more lucrative
swordfishing, according to Jim Cook of Pacific Ocean Producers who,
along with partner Sean Martin own five longliners.
With California permits, these fishermen Ñ and a host of foreign
longliners - frequent the same Hawaiian fishing grounds that are off-limits
to Hawaii-based longliners. The banned area covers about 6.5 million
square miles surrounding the Hawaiian Islands. Cook estimates that for
every Hawaii longliner fishing tuna in the area, there are 17 non-Hawaii
longliners fishing for tuna and swordfish. Unable to land their catch
in Hawaii, they use high-seas freezer boats to keep it fresh during
the long trips they must make to and from the middle of the Pacific.
"This is a very important fishery for Hawaii," says Cook.
Without swordfishing, the value of the fish landed has dropped from
an average of $55 million annually to about $30 million - a big loss
for the Hawaii commercial fishing industry, he says.
In December 1999, Judge Ezra first imposed a ban on swordfishing within
a 1.5 million square mile area north of Hawaii, following a lawsuit
filed against the National Marine Fisheries Service by the Center for
Marine Conservation and Turtle Island Restoration Network. The lawsuit
was aimed at protecting several species of endangered sea turtles inhabiting
the area. Unlike tuna fishing, which is not banned, swordfishing gear
is run shallow, posing a greater risk of hooking sea turtles.
In August of last year, the banned area was expanded to the current
6.5 million square miles. Since that time, the NMFS has completed an
environmental impact study of the fishery. The Hawaii Longline Association,
in turn, has filed suit against the NMFS, hoping to get the agency to
conduct a broad-based experimental fishery in an effort to mitigate
the turtle catch. The goal would be to come up with new methodologies
that would both reduce the turtle take and increase the take of target
Cook, who has coordinated the Longline Association's legal response
to the ban during the last two years, suggests this information could
be shared with foreign fishermen as a way to encourage more turtle-friendly
Local longline fleet has new addition
The first new longliner to be built in Hawaii in more than two decades
is expected to be headed for tuna fishing grounds on November 1, following
sea trials in early October.
The 72' x 19' whaleback longliner Kawika, owned by Vessel Management
Associates, was built by Hawaiian Steelboat Building Inc., whose sole
proprietor, Alex Jaqubenko, framed and plated the boat himself. It features
an aluminum tophouse and shelter deck, carries 10,000 gallons of fuel
and accommodates seven crew.
The only other large fishing boat built in Hawaii in recent years is
the 78-foot, steel-hulled aku boat Nisei, designed and built in 1996
by Kewalo Shipyard.
Vessel Management Associates is owned by Sean Martin and Jim Cook.
Oceanic Imaging Consultants
"Lucky we live Hawaii!' they say, an "island paradise"
in the middle of the largest ocean on the planet. Even though we may
see that ocean every day, whether we surf in it, swim in it, fish in
it, or perhaps just sail over it, we barely just scratch its surface.
It is trite to say but true, that we know more about the backside of
the moon than the depths of the oceans. Oceanic Imaging Consultants,
Inc., a Honolulu-based company with offices in Manoa Valley, is doing
something about that.
Oceanic Imaging Consultants, Inc. (OIC) was founded in 1993 by Dr. Thomas
B. Reed IV as a spin-off of research done at the University of Hawaii
at Manoa. Reed received his bachelor's degree in geology from Harvard
University in 1982 and earned his Ph. D in marine geology and geophysics
at the University of Hawaii at Manoa in 1987. The company, which began
with three employees, now has over 15 full time staff, plus agents on
the mainland and across Europe and Asia. OIC has clients worldwide and
has tripled its gross revenue in the last four years.
OIC develops software and systems that acquire and process data for
seafloor mapping applications. The principals at OIC first got their
feet wet with seafloor mapping data working with the SeaMARC II sidescan
sonar and swath bathymetry system at the University of Hawaii in the
early 1980s. That system produced simultaneous sonar imagery, much like
an "acoustic air-photo" and a wide swath of bathymetry, mapping
the contours of the features on the ocean floor over a swath 5 miles
The chief users for such imagery and data were the geologists and geophysicists
at UH and elsewhere, who were involved in mapping and interpreting volcanic
activity and faulting, much like what we see today on the Big Island,
but on the seafloor, 3 to 5 miles down. OIC got its start by developing
and marketing a commercial software package to process such data, originally
for university users, but then increasingly for commercial, military
and government users who were looking to get away from manual charting
to a faster, more automated way of making maps of waterways, harbors
and routes for pipelines and telecommunication cables.
In 1994, OIC began work on a system to both acquire and process sonar
data in real-time, largely alleviating the need for extensive and time-consuming
processing of data after the survey is completed. This system, known
as GeoDAS (Geophysical Data Acquisition Software), has become OIC's
flagship product, and is currently used globally in commercial, industrial,
military and academic seafloor surveys. With its ability to process
the sonar data and display it to the user in real-time, GeoDAS does
for the surveyors what a Polaroid camera does for any of us - instant
pictures and instant gratification.
Along with processing sonar data in real-time, GeoDAS is also designed
to create a high quality, geo-coded "picture" of the entire
area of the seafloor surveyed, known as a mosaic. While the sonar data
visible to the user at any one time provides a detailed, instant look
at the seabed right beneath them, the mosaic provides a "big-picture"
view of the surveyed area, and can be "dropped in" to a Geographic
Information System (GIS) for inclusion in a report, analysis or electronic
In the past, mosaics were constructed manually by cutting and pasting
together hundreds of images from rolls of paper records. GeoDAS has
simplified this method significantly. Now, mosaics can be made on-screen
during the actual survey. Mosaics can also be printed, exported to other
software programs, or merged with existing data for a more complete
image. Ultimately, GeoDAS allows the user to "see" what is
on the ocean bottom and where it is in the world.
OIC's clients include academic, commercial and governmental survey groups.
Bob Ballard, the discoverer of the Titanic, recently used GeoDAS in
his discovery and mapping of lost cities on the bottom of the Black
Sea. On the U.S. Mainland, the Army Corps of Engineers is using GeoDAS
to map waterways on the rivers in Philadelphia, New York, Delaware,
Baltimore and New Orleans. In Europe, GeoDAS is engaged in projects
ranging from searching for Viking shipwrecks in the Baltic to hunting
for sunken treasure off the coast of England to clearing debris from
the bottom of Aberdeen Harbor and the Port of London.
Closer to home, GeoDAS and OIC have been involved in sand deposit surveys
off Waikiki and Windward Oahu, mapping coral reefs off Kaneohe, and
defining cable-routes for fiber-optics telecommunication cables across
In 1998, Ocanic Imaging Consultants was awarded a contract by CEROS,
(Hawaii's Center for Excellence in Research of Ocean Sciences) for the
development of a real-time, 3-D virtual reality product that will allow
the operator of any underwater vehicle (manned, un-manned or remotely
operated vehicle (ROV)) to successfully maneuver in low to zero visibility
Using ROVer's Eye, the operator is able to "see" the surrounding
seafloor terrain by "ensonifying" the terrain with sonar,
just as a bat or dolphin would. ROVer's Eye then combines this real-time
echo data with vehicle position data and displays the resulting "model"
of the surroundings, providing a real-time, 3-D virtual picture of the
seafloor and objects on it or above it, from the front, side, back,
and bird's eye views. As the underwater vehicle moves, ROVer's "view"
can be adjusted in real time using a joystick, mouse or keyboard control
(just like a flight simulator or video game). ROVer can even add in
a model of the vehicle, and any other man-made objects so the operators
can effectively "see" themselves in relation to the terrain
and other objects in the water, as an aid to navigation, and prevention
OIC has delivered its second license for ROVer's Eye this summer to
Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab, but is always on the lookout for
possible partners and applications here in Hawaii.
by Priscilla Perez Billig
At 7 a.m. on April 1, 1946, a giant wave crashed over the sleepy coastal
town of Hilo on the island of Hawaii. One hundred and fifty-nine people
died. Hilo's near-destruction and the pursuant flooding of surrounding
low-lying coastal areas totaled $23 million in damages.
This giant wall of water, called tsunami, began its journey 2,500 miles
to the north in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. There, a 7.3 earthquake
along a major fault line caused the sea floor to buckle, displacing
millions of gallons of water and generating a tsunami traveling at speeds
up to 600 mph across the Pacific.
Barely perceptible on the surface and stretching across the open sea
for a hundred miles, these gently sloping waves traveled across the
Pacific Ocean to Hawaii in about five hours, slowing as they entered
the shallow waters of Hilo Bay, compressing and growing in height. By
the time they crashed onto shore, waves had reached heights of 25 feet.
No warning system was in place.
Three years later, the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) was created
to provide warnings of tsunamis and assess their potential impact on
the shores and coastal areas in the Pacific.
Since 1992, 10 major tsunamis have generated throughout the Pacific
Basin, killing more than 4,000 in Alaska, Japan, and along the western
coasts of the U.S. and South America.
PTWC geophysicists monitor data from tide gauges located at shorelines,
piers, and harbors throughout the Pacific, as well as deepwater buoys
near coastlines for disturbance associated with tsunamis. In the event
of a tsunami, the PTWC staff compares the water-level records near the
epicenter to those of past tsunamis and determines whether tsunami warnings
should be issued to civil defense and disaster management agencies.
Kwok Fai Cheung, professor of ocean and resources engineering at the
University of Hawaii, says this is too little information coming from
too far away. In the event of a tsunamigenic earthquake in Alaska, they
are trying to predict what will happen to Hawaii based on water-level
records from 2,500 miles away. Because of the uncertainties, the predictions
tend to be conservative.
With funding from Hawaii Sea Grant and Hawaii State Civil Defense,
Cheung has recently developed a tsunami height forecast model that will
add accuracy to this current warning system. Cheung's model uses the
same water-level records used by PTWC, but takes the prediction one
step further to provide the tsunami height at a location about 200 miles
from Hawaii. The model also gives an assessment of the accuracy of the
Cheung and his Ph.D. student, Yong Wei, recently completed the tsunami
height forecast model for the Alaska source region. All the time-consuming
calculations were performed in advance to allow instant predictions
of the tsunami heights upon receiving the water-level records near the
Since the locations and intensity of future tsunamigenic earthquakes
are unknown, the Alaska source region is divided into 41 possible sub-faults
based on tsunami events that occurred from 1938 to 1986. The product
is a database of computer-simulated tsunamis due to unit slip (vertical
displacement) of the 41 sub-faults. When a tsunamigenic earthquake occurs,
the forecast model uses the database of tsunamis as building blocks
to reconstruct the water-level records near the source, thereby providing
the location and intensity of the earthquake as well as the resulting
Early confirmation of a destructive tsunami saves lives by giving communities
more time to prepare, and early cancellation avoids the costs associated
with an evacuation. "If we take the guesswork out of the decision-making
process, we can avoid unnecessary warnings or evacuations and people
will take tsunami warnings more seriously," Cheung said.
The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center on Oahu, the Pacific Disaster Center
on Maui, and the Pacific Marine Environment Laboratory in Seattle plan
to use this approach for tsunami height prediction. Cheung and Wei will
next work on expanding their model to include the Japan and South America
source regions and to predict inundation for coastal areas of Hawaii.
Priscilla Perez Billig is the communications director for the University
of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program.